Acid-proof or acid resistant steel contains iron and chromium, and additionally some nickel and / or manganese as well as smaller quantities of other metals such as molybdenum, niobium and titanium. Acid-proof steel is used in environments with more challenging chemical exposures, such as a maritime environment and when items come in contact with acids. The steel alloy containing both chromium and nickel is also known as nickel-chromium steel. If nothing else is stated in the Catalogue, the classification Acid-Proof Steel refers to the European Standard EN 1.4404, which corresponds to American Iron and Steel Institute standard AISI 316L. For complete material specifications see http://katalog.industrilas.se/?114
Aluminium is frequently considered a non-corrosive metal, but this is not entirely accurate. Aluminium corrodes but between pH 4 and pH 9 it forms a passive oxide film that protects the material. Outside of this pH norm aluminium corrodes quickly. Alloys corrode quicker than pure aluminium, and the fastest corrosion occurs when it contains copper. However, aluminium can handle sulphuric acid, nitrates and acetic acid thanks to the formation of either a passive oxide film or acetates that isolate the aluminium from the oxidizing substance. Upon contact with other metals corrosion can occur if the environment is damp. This is true in for instance contact with copper or iron. Contact with stainless steel is on the other hand harmless under normal conditions. The Industrilas product inventory offers hinges and rod latches made of aluminium.
turns the surface layer of a metal into an insoluble oxide which provides corrosion protection, decorative surfaces, good adherence for enamels and other surface treatments, as well as certain electrical and mechanical characteristics. Aluminium is the most common metal for anodizing, but magnesium, zinc, and titanium are also used for this purpose. The electrolyte solution consists of diluted sulphuric acid or chromium acid.
is a modern method of pre-treatment for powder coated items. The method is based on nanotechnology and is a multi-metal process adapted primarily for zinc, aluminium and steel. The process offers improved corrosion protection compared with for instance iron phosphating, as well as excellent adhesion for application of powder. The four rinse stages assure a better process stability. Reverse osmosis is employed to de-ionize the water, which involves a membrane technique that requires a minimal use of chemicals.
This is a copper alloyed with zinc. Other alloy elements may also be present. However, the most common brass consists of 65% copper and 35% zinc. Industrilas primarily uses brass for housing nuts, cylinders, keys, plates and hinge items.
is usually done on Industrilas metal products to provide a hard surface and corrosion protection. The method may also be used for decorative purposes. Different colours can be obtained depending on the chromate concentration in the bath: metallic shiny, light blue, yellow, green, bronze or black. The baths contain among other things chromic acid, chromates, cyanides and acids.
The distinguishing characteristics of the general construction steels are their toughness and good response to welding. These materials have been given improved cuttability through cold work and / or lead additives. Industrilas uses S235JR (SS 1312) in for instance cams, if nothing else is stated. S235JR (SS 1312) characterizes cold drawn flat and round bars with good surface finish that are easy to work and weld on. Construction steels are mostly used in items with moderate strength requirements.
Copper is 100% recyclable without losing any of its properties. According to newly acquired data 34% of the 22 million tons of copper used globally every year come from recycled material. The lifespan of different copper products vary greatly, from 100 years or more in buildings, to just a few years in electronic equipment. In damp air, especially with air pollution present, a brown oxidation film builds up, which later transforms to a green patina. This thin layer protects against further corrosion. Common copper alloys are brass, bronze and silver plate. Industrilas mainly uses copper in custom ordered items.
is performed to remove burrs, smoothen edges, eliminate forge scales or improve the surface quality of objects. The items are placed in a rotating drum or a vibrating container and is either circulated through the machine “plain” or with the addition of a grinding agent. The deburring process can be performed wet (most common) or dry. During wet tumbling water or oil is used with added chemicals and grinding agents, which can consist of aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, steel, etc.
The surface treatment is often the last stage in the manufacturing process, which generally has been preceded by some form of mechanical work where oil has been used for lubrication or cooling. Oil may also be used as corrosion protection during interim storage of the items. Alkaline and acidic parts cleaning, or degreasing with a solvent (trichloroethylene) is performed to remove oils, grease etc., from the item’s surface before the final stage of surface treatment (see list above). For the same reason steeping is employed to remove forge scale, rolling skin, rust and other types of oxidation layers. Steeping is commonly accomplished by submerging the item in one or more acids, but also complex-forming alkaline salts and steeping pastes may be used. (Even electrolyte steeping may occur.)
Delrin is a particular manufacturer’s trade name for Polyoxymethylene (POM). This is a plastic that is often used as a substitute for metal items. The primary characteristics are low weight, low friction, durability and it can be used in temperatures up to 90˚ centigrade. Certain hinge pins in the Industrilas product inventory are made of Delrin/POM.
ED coating (electrolytic dip coating) is an alternative to powder coating. This coating is employed when the required tolerances are very precise. ED coating is an acrylic/urethane polymer applied cathodically through electrophoresis. The surface becomes decorative with a relatively high shine. ED coating can be applied to steel, aluminium, die cast zinc, hot-galvanized steel, electrolytically zinc plated steel surfaces, etc. The method makes it possible to cover the metal with an evenly regulated and extremely thin surface layer (approximately 20-22 μm) with excellent adherence to the entire surface. The UV-resistant coating layer is void of pores and provides excellent corrosion protection as well as great wear resistance. ED coating has been classified by the Swedish Occupational Health and Safety Board as one of the most environmentally conscious coating procedures available. Industrilas includes ED coating as an alternative surface treatment for a number of items in the product inventory.
EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene M-class rubber) is an elastomer characterized by its wide range of applications. EPDM rubber is used at Industrilas for different types of strips, sealants and gaskets. It exhibits good resistance to water and alkalis, but not oil, gasoline and concentrated acids.
EUROPEAN NORM EN 1.4301
See ”Stainless steel”
EUROPEAN NORM EN 1.4404
See ”Acid-proof steel”
FIXED GASKET (FIPFG)
As part of the product development at Industrilas an increasing number of products contain an injected, fixed porous gasket called FIPFG (Formed In Place Foam Gasket), also known as a ”PUR”-gasket (polyurethane gasket). The method involves robotic application on the item of a bead of liquid gasket material, consisting of a two-component polyurethane. As the gasket cures it also expands, turning into an attached, flexible, porous gasket, which offers a reliable barrier against influence from external elements. The fixed gasket simplifies assembly, reduces the number of loose items and offers improved sealing. The polyurethane is also available in special versions to achieve approval to a particular UL-norm or to the VDI 6022-standard.
A flat gasket is used to seal between for instance the lock and the door of a monitor housing in order to obtain IP65 in Industrilas products. The flat gasket is made of a blend of NBR (Nitrile Rubber) and SBR (Styrene-Butadiene Rubber). It has good resistance to chemical and oil. The gasket can also be exchanged for other materials to achieve approval to a particular UL-norm or to the VDI 6022-standard.
The main requirement of these steels is good cuttability. The cutting speed needs to be kept optimally high. The shape of the filings needs to be short to make them easy to transport away from the point of cutting. Industrilas uses 11SMnPb30 (SS 1914) in for instance rod latches in the standard inventory. 11SMnPb30 (SS 1914) characterizes a lead-alloy freecutting steel of moderate strength. Its cuttability is excellent, and it produces short filings. It needs to be worked at a high cutting speed for best results.
Glassfiber reinforced polyamid (with 30 % added glassfiber). See also ”polyamide”.
This refers to the standards “EN ISO 14159 - Safety of machinery” and “Hygiene requirements for the design of machinery (ISO 14159: 2002)”; German version; “EN ISO 14159: 2008”. A “hygienic design” is the cleaning-friendly or easy-clean design of parts, components and production equipment. In the structural design requirements are taken into account to the ease of cleaning, so that areas can be avoided in which dirt can accumulate and can pose a risk to the product (eg food). Furthermore, the product design should facilitate an effective and simple cleaning of the parts, and are often made of materials that can stand up to disinfectants and to other ways of disinfecting machinery, for instance steam. Hygienic Design is an important element for ensuring the food quality.
Industrilas provides latches for machine casings or enclosures that meet the requirements of the hygiene standard above. See example 6-147: Quarter-turn latch for hygiene requirements.